记录相关操作

记录相关操作

一、介绍

MySQL数据操作: DML

========================================================

在MySQL管理软件中,可以通过SQL语句中的DML语言来实现数据的操作,包括
使用INSERT实现数据的插入
UPDATE实现数据的更新
使用DELETE实现数据的删除
使用SELECT查询数据以及。

========================================================

本节内容包括:

插入数据 更新数据 删除数据 查询数据

二、插入数据INSERT

1. 插入完整数据(顺序插入)
    语法一:
    INSERT INTO 表名(字段1,字段2,字段3…字段n) VALUES(值1,值2,值3…值n);

    语法二:
    INSERT INTO 表名 VALUES (值1,值2,值3…值n);

2. 指定字段插入数据
    语法:
    INSERT INTO 表名(字段1,字段2,字段3…) VALUES (值1,值2,值3…);

3. 插入多条记录
    语法:
    INSERT INTO 表名 VALUES
        (值1,值2,值3…值n),
        (值1,值2,值3…值n),
        (值1,值2,值3…值n);

4. 插入查询结果
    语法:
    INSERT INTO 表名(字段1,字段2,字段3…字段n) 
                    SELECT (字段1,字段2,字段3…字段n) FROM 表2
                    WHERE …;

三、更新数据UPDATE

语法:
    UPDATE 表名 SET
        字段1=值1,
        字段2=值2,
        WHERE CONDITION;

示例:
    UPDATE mysql.user SET password=password(‘123’) 
        where user=’root’ and host=’localhost’;

四、删除数据DELETE

语法:
    DELETE FROM 表名 
        WHERE CONITION;

示例:
    DELETE FROM mysql.user 
        WHERE password=’’;

练习:
    更新MySQL root用户密码为mysql123
    删除除从本地登录的root用户以外的所有用户

五、查询数据SELECT-单表查询

1、单表查询的语法

SELECT 字段1,字段2... FROM 表名
                  WHERE 条件
                  GROUP BY field
                  HAVING 筛选
                  ORDER BY field
                  LIMIT 限制条数

2、关键字的执行优先级

*重点中的重点*

from
where
group by
having
select
distinct
order by
limit
1.找到表:from
2.拿着where指定的约束条件,去文件/表中取出一条条记录
3.将取出的一条条记录进行分组group by,如果没有group by,则整体作为一组
4.将分组的结果进行having过滤
5.执行select
6.去重
7.将结果按条件排序:order by
8.限制结果的显示条数

3、简单查询

准备表和记录

company.employee
    员工id      id                  int             
    姓名        emp_name            varchar
    性别        sex                 enum
    年龄        age                 int
    入职日期     hire_date           date
    岗位        post                varchar
    职位描述     post_comment        varchar
    薪水        salary              double
    办公室       office              int
    部门编号     depart_id           int

#创建表
create table employee(
id int not null unique auto_increment,
name varchar(20) not null,
sex enum('male','female') not null default 'male', #大部分是男的
age int(3) unsigned not null default 28,
hire_date date not null,
post varchar(50),
post_comment varchar(100),
salary double(15,2),
office int, #一个部门一个屋子
depart_id int
);

#查看表结构
mysql> desc employee;
+--------------+-----------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| Field        | Type                  | Null | Key | Default | Extra          |
+--------------+-----------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| id           | int(11)               | NO   | PRI | NULL    | auto_increment |
| name         | varchar(20)           | NO   |     | NULL    |                |
| sex          | enum('male','female') | NO   |     | male    |                |
| age          | int(3) unsigned       | NO   |     | 28      |                |
| hire_date    | date                  | NO   |     | NULL    |                |
| post         | varchar(50)           | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| post_comment | varchar(100)          | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| salary       | double(15,2)          | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| office       | int(11)               | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| depart_id    | int(11)               | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
+--------------+-----------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+

#插入记录
#三个部门:教学,销售,运营
insert into employee(name,sex,age,hire_date,post,salary,office,depart_id) values
('egon','male',18,'20170301','老男孩驻沙河办事处外交大使',7300.33,401,1), #以下是教学部
('alex','male',78,'20150302','teacher',1000000.31,401,1),
('wupeiqi','male',81,'20130305','teacher',8300,401,1),
('yuanhao','male',73,'20140701','teacher',3500,401,1),
('liwenzhou','male',28,'20121101','teacher',2100,401,1),
('jingliyang','female',18,'20110211','teacher',9000,401,1),
('jinxin','male',18,'19000301','teacher',30000,401,1),
('成龙','male',48,'20101111','teacher',10000,401,1),

('歪歪','female',48,'20150311','sale',3000.13,402,2),#以下是销售部门
('丫丫','female',38,'20101101','sale',2000.35,402,2),
('丁丁','female',18,'20110312','sale',1000.37,402,2),
('星星','female',18,'20160513','sale',3000.29,402,2),
('格格','female',28,'20170127','sale',4000.33,402,2),

('张野','male',28,'20160311','operation',10000.13,403,3), #以下是运营部门
('程咬金','male',18,'19970312','operation',20000,403,3),
('程咬银','female',18,'20130311','operation',19000,403,3),
('程咬铜','male',18,'20150411','operation',18000,403,3),
('程咬铁','female',18,'20140512','operation',17000,403,3)
;

#ps:如果在windows系统中,插入中文字符,select的结果为空白,可以将所有字符编码统一设置成gbk

#简单查询

   SELECT id,name,sex,age,hire_date,post,post_comment,salary,office,depart_id 
    FROM employee;

    SELECT * FROM employee;

    SELECT name,salary FROM employee;

#避免重复DISTINCT
    SELECT DISTINCT post FROM employee;    

#通过四则运算查询
    SELECT name, salary*12 FROM employee;
    SELECT name, salary*12 AS Annual_salary FROM employee;
    SELECT name, salary*12 Annual_salary FROM employee;

#定义显示格式
   CONCAT() 函数用于连接字符串
   SELECT CONCAT('姓名: ',name,'  年薪: ', salary*12)  AS Annual_salary 
   FROM employee;

   CONCAT_WS() 第一个参数为分隔符
   SELECT CONCAT_WS(':',name,salary*12)  AS Annual_salary 
   FROM employee;

   结合CASE语句:
   SELECT
       (
           CASE
           WHEN NAME = 'egon' THEN
               NAME
           WHEN NAME = 'alex' THEN
               CONCAT(name,'_BIGSB')
           ELSE
               concat(NAME, 'SB')
           END
       ) as new_name
   FROM
       emp;

小练习:

1 查出所有员工的名字,薪资,格式为
    <名字:egon>    <薪资:3000>
2 查出所有的岗位(去掉重复)
3 查出所有员工名字,以及他们的年薪,年薪的字段名为annual_year

答案:

select concat(‘<名字:’,name,’> ‘,'<薪资:’,salary,’>’) from employee;

select distinct depart_id from employee;

select name,salary*12 annual_salary from employee;

4、WHERE约束

where字句中可以使用:

1. 比较运算符:> < >= <= <> !=
2. between 80 and 100 值在10到20之间
3. in(80,90,100) 值是10或20或30
4. like 'egon%'
    pattern可以是%或_,
    %表示任意多字符
    _表示一个字符
5. 逻辑运算符:在多个条件直接可以使用逻辑运算符 and or not

1:单条件查询
    SELECT name FROM employee
        WHERE post='sale';

#2:多条件查询
    SELECT name,salary FROM employee
        WHERE post='teacher' AND salary>10000;

#3:关键字BETWEEN AND
    SELECT name,salary FROM employee 
        WHERE salary BETWEEN 10000 AND 20000;

    SELECT name,salary FROM employee 
        WHERE salary NOT BETWEEN 10000 AND 20000;

#4:关键字IS NULL(判断某个字段是否为NULL不能用等号,需要用IS)
    SELECT name,post_comment FROM employee 
        WHERE post_comment IS NULL;

    SELECT name,post_comment FROM employee 
        WHERE post_comment IS NOT NULL;

    SELECT name,post_comment FROM employee 
        WHERE post_comment=''; 注意''是空字符串,不是null
    ps:
        执行
        update employee set post_comment='' where id=2;
        再用上条查看,就会有结果了

#5:关键字IN集合查询
    SELECT name,salary FROM employee 
        WHERE salary=3000 OR salary=3500 OR salary=4000 OR salary=9000 ;

    SELECT name,salary FROM employee 
        WHERE salary IN (3000,3500,4000,9000) ;

    SELECT name,salary FROM employee 
        WHERE salary NOT IN (3000,3500,4000,9000) ;

#6:关键字LIKE模糊查询
    通配符’%’
    SELECT * FROM employee 
            WHERE name LIKE 'eg%';

    通配符’_’
    SELECT * FROM employee 
            WHERE name LIKE 'al__';

小练习:

1. 查看岗位是teacher的员工姓名、年龄
2. 查看岗位是teacher且年龄大于30岁的员工姓名、年龄
3. 查看岗位是teacher且薪资在9000-1000范围内的员工姓名、年龄、薪资
4. 查看岗位描述不为NULL的员工信息
5. 查看岗位是teacher且薪资是10000或9000或30000的员工姓名、年龄、薪资
6. 查看岗位是teacher且薪资不是10000或9000或30000的员工姓名、年龄、薪资
7. 查看岗位是teacher且名字是jin开头的员工姓名、年薪
select name,age from employee where post = 'teacher';
select name,age from employee where post='teacher' and age > 30; 
select name,age,salary from employee where post='teacher' and salary between 9000 and 10000;
select * from employee where post_comment is not null;
select name,age,salary from employee where post='teacher' and salary in (10000,9000,30000);
select name,age,salary from employee where post='teacher' and salary not in (10000,9000,30000);
select name,salary*12 from employee where post='teacher' and name like 'jin%';

5、分组查询:GROUP BY

什么是分组?为什么要分组?

1、首先明确一点:分组发生在where之后,即分组是基于where之后得到的记录而进行的

2、分组指的是:将所有记录按照某个相同字段进行归类,比如针对员工信息表的职位分组,或者按照性别进行分组等

3、为何要分组呢?

取每个部门的最高工资

取每个部门的员工数

取男人数和女人数

小窍门:‘每’这个字后面的字段,就是我们分组的依据

4、大前提:

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